Depressionotherwise known as major depressive disorder or clinical depression, is a common and serious mood disorder. Those who suffer from depression experience persistent feelings of sadness and hopelessness and lose interest in activities they once enjoyed. Aside from the emotional problems caused by depression, individuals can also present with a physical symptom such as chronic pain or digestive issues. To be diagnosed with depression, symptoms must be present for at least two weeks.
The DSM-5 outlines the following criterion to make a diagnosis of depression. The individual must be experiencing five or more symptoms during the same 2-week period and at least one of the symptoms should be either 1 depressed mood or 2 loss of interest or pleasure. To receive a diagnosis of depression, these symptoms must cause the individual clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
The symptoms must also not be a result of substance abuse or another medical condition. Take our 2-minute Depression quiz to see if you may benefit from further diagnosis and treatment. What is the difference between depression and sadness? Given that the primary symptom associated with depression is sadness it can be hard to know how to make a distinction between the two psychological states. But depression is more than just sadness, and not simply by a measure of degree.
Sadness is a normal emotion that everyone will experience at some point in his or her life. Be it the loss of a job, the end of a relationship, or the death of a loved one, sadness is usually caused by a specific situation, person, or event. When it comes to depression, however, no such trigger is needed. A person suffering from depression feels sad or hopeless about everything. This person may have every reason in the world to be happy and yet they lose the ability to experience joy or pleasure.
Even activities that they once enjoyed are no longer interesting or pleasurable. Depression, on the other hand, is associated with serious disruption of normal eating and sleeping patterns, as well as not wanting to get out of bed all day. One of the diagnostic features of depression is this kind of self-diminishing, negative thought patterns.
Those struggling with severe depression may have thoughts of self-harm, death, or suicide, or have a suicide plan. Although there is a clear distinction to be made between depression and sadness, it is possible for major depressive disorder to occur in addition to sadness resulting from a significant losssuch as bereavement, financial ruin, or a serious medical illness.
The decision as to whether a diagnosis of depression should be made will depend on the judgment of the clinician treating the individual. If you think you or someone you care about may be suffering from depression, we encourage you to seek help from a mental health professional.
The following online directories can be consulted to find a therapist in your area:. You can call or go to their website for a live chat.
American Psychiatric Association.Unipolar depression definition indicates it a form of major depression. It is usually characterised as a continuous feeling of sadness or losing interest in all activities around. Here, the term unipolar simply indicates difference between bipolar depression and major depression that actually represent some kind of oscillating state between mania and depression.
The condition of unipolar depression completely focuses over negative emotions and person keeps on feeling low all the time. The best thing to know here is that Unipolar Depression is well analysed and understood by the experts in medical community so it is possible to treat this state of mind with talk therapy as well as using few specific medications. The article below contains complete details about treatment, causes, symptoms and statistics associated with this particular medical condition.
Note that these males and females does not encounter lifetime depression occurrences and reports of year reveal that the average affected age with depression is As per the stats discussed above, it can be seen that females in the country are more affected by depression as compared to males. Actually, there are several reasons behind finding women more affected with unipolar major depression problems.
But the actual tendency of this depression is to occur with several other major illnesses as well as severe mental conditions. These troubles can lead to anything essential ranging from pregnancy to several recurring or chronic troubles. Although few major troubles are more related to man, still psychology reveals that there are several psychological reasons behind finding large numbers of woman affected with this medical condition.
One of the major reasons behind this trouble in women is the genetic predisposition and fluctuating hormonal conditions at the time of menopause, childbirth and puberty. Note that, unipolar depression is actually a major issue for men as well as women so if it is ignored as it is then it may further lead to uncontrollable conditions.
Most of the time, professionals use to follow combination of treatments to improve this medical health issue so that fast response can be observed from patient. As there are large number of people suffering with Unipolar Depression so the causes behind occurrence of this disease are also many and they find their origins over variety of situations.
Few journals in medical health branch reveal that genetics is one of the major causes of depression disorder. Genetic engineering and gene manipulation concept. Hand is replacing part of a DNA molecule. Within last few years, almost three fold rises have been observed in the number of patients suffering with unipolar depression and it is commonly found in the first degree relatives of the sufferers out of the general population.Major depressive disorder MDDalso known simply as depressionis a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of pervasive low mood.
Low self-esteemloss of interest in normally enjoyable activities, low energy, and pain without a clear cause are common symptoms. The diagnosis of major depressive disorder is based on the person's reported experiences and a mental status examination. The most common time of onset is in a person's 20s and 30s,   with females affected about twice as often as males.
The term major depressive disorder was introduced by a group of US clinicians in the mids.
Major depression significantly affects a person's family and personal relationshipswork or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general health. A person having a major depressive episode usually exhibits a low mood, which pervades all aspects of life, and an inability to experience pleasure in previously enjoyable activities. Depressed people may be preoccupied with—or ruminate over—thoughts and feelings of worthlessness, inappropriate guilt or regret, helplessness or hopelessness.
These symptoms include delusions or, less commonly, hallucinationsusually unpleasant. Insomnia is common among the depressed. In the typical pattern, a person wakes very early and cannot get back to sleep. A depressed person may report multiple physical symptoms such as fatigueheadaches, or digestive problems; physical complaints are the most common presenting problem in developing countries, according to the World Health Organization 's criteria for depression.
Depressed children may often display an irritable mood rather than a depressed one,  and show varying symptoms depending on age and situation.
They may be described as clingy, demanding, dependent, or insecure. Major depression frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric problems. The —92 National Comorbidity Survey US reports that half of those with major depression also have lifetime anxiety and its associated disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder. While overuse of digital media has been associated with depressive symptoms, digital media may also be utilised in some situations to improve mood.
Depression and pain often co-occur. The diagnosis of depression is often delayed or missed, and the outcome can worsen if the depression is noticed but completely misunderstood. Depression is also associated with a 1. People with major depression are less likely to follow medical recommendations for treating and preventing cardiovascular disorderswhich further increases their risk of medical complications. Depression often coexists with physical disorders common among the elderly, such as strokeother cardiovascular diseasesParkinson's diseaseand chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
The biopsychosocial model proposes that biological, psychological, and social factors all play a role in causing depression. The preexisting vulnerability can be either genetic  implying an interaction between nature and nurtureor schematicresulting from views of the world learned in childhood.
Childhood abuseeither physical, sexual or psychological, are all risk factors for depression, among other psychiatric issues that co-occur such as anxiety and drug abuse. Childhood trauma also correlates with severity of depression, lack of response to treatment and length of illness. However, some are more susceptible to developing mental illness such as depression after trauma, and various genes have been suggested to control susceptibility.
Ina genome-wide association study discovered 44 variants in the genome linked to risk for major depression. The 5-HTTLPRor serotonin transporter promoter gene 's short allele has been associated with increased risk of depression.Major depression, also known as unipolar or major depressive disorder MDDis characterized by a persistent feeling of sadness or a lack of interest in outside stimuli. The unipolar connotes a difference between major depression and bipolar depressionwhich refers to an oscillating state between depression and mania.
Fortunately, major depression is well understood in the medical community and is often easily treatable through a combination of medication and talk therapy. Below is a guide to everything from the symptoms and causes of major depression, to statistics and treatment that you can seek from a medical professional if you feel that you need assistance. Article continues below Do you feel depressed? Take our 2-minute Depression quiz to see if you may benefit from further diagnosis and treatment.
Although that is not a vast majority, it represents a significant section of the population, many of whom do not seek recurring treatment for their depression. While these men and women do have lifetime occurrences, the median age for the onset of major depression is age 32, as reported by the U.
It can result in collation with anything from pregnancy to more chronic or recurring problems.
While those particular conditions are more prevalent in men, Psychology Today has stated that a commonly cited physiological reason for women experiencing major depression more than men is due to fluctuating hormones and genetic predisposition, particularity around the times of puberty, childbirth, and menopause.
However, major depression is a serious issue for both genders, and if left untreated, can have fatal results. Fortunately, there is good news. While the prevalence of major depression is widespread, the causes of major depression are equally as numerous and have their origins in a variety of places.
Co-occurring illness and medical conditions can be a serious risk factor in having a major depressive episode. Also, symptoms of the disorder itself can cause depression. For example:. The extent that anatomical and physiological factors have on major depression is unknown, but it is thought to be significant. Along with socioeconomic factors the loss of a job and a feeling of economic disenfranchisement, for examplethe above are considered the major reasons why you would suffer from major depressive disorder.
You might be surprised to learn that there are many different types of major depressive disorder that can affect you can make living your daily life difficult. Each type often has different causes, but they typically involve the same feeling of disinterest in activities that you once loved and an overall feeling of melancholy.
These are divided into subtypes called specifiers that determine how long the diagnosis of depression lasts and the defining characteristic of each type. In addition, to those listed above, the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders separates out bipolar and related disorders and includes these other distinct types:.
Major depressive disorder
There can be a number of contributing factors related to the cause of your depression. These typically manifest themselves in coping behaviors and reactions to how you feel. Depending on which type of depression you have, you may experience various symptoms. There are several treatment methods for major depression disorder. These approaches include psychotherapy, antidepressant medications, electroconvulsive treatment ECTand other somatic therapies.
However, ECT is generally avoided, except in extreme circumstances, in favor of both psychotherapy and antidepressants.
A medical psychiatrist can provide both psychotherapy services and prescribe antidepressants, which differ for each person based on individual needs. If you find yourself experiencing any of the symptoms or relating in any way to major depression disorder, you should seek assistance from a medical professional. Thankfully, major depressive disorder has become much less stigmatized in recent years. There is plenty of in-depth information available about depression, and your chosen medical professional is often likely to go through it with you so you can choose the best treatment for your lifestyle.
You should feel as though you have options.Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. Also called major depressive disorder or clinical depression, it affects how you feel, think and behave and can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems.Introduction to Psychology Depression and Major Depressive Disorder
You may have trouble doing normal day-to-day activities, and sometimes you may feel as if life isn't worth living. More than just a bout of the blues, depression isn't a weakness and you can't simply "snap out" of it. Depression may require long-term treatment. But don't get discouraged.
Most people with depression feel better with medication, psychotherapy or both. Depression care at Mayo Clinic. Although depression may occur only once during your life, people typically have multiple episodes. During these episodes, symptoms occur most of the day, nearly every day and may include:.
For many people with depression, symptoms usually are severe enough to cause noticeable problems in day-to-day activities, such as work, school, social activities or relationships with others.
Some people may feel generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why. Common signs and symptoms of depression in children and teenagers are similar to those of adults, but there can be some differences. Depression is not a normal part of growing older, and it should never be taken lightly.
Unfortunately, depression often goes undiagnosed and untreated in older adults, and they may feel reluctant to seek help. Symptoms of depression may be different or less obvious in older adults, such as:. If you feel depressed, make an appointment to see your doctor or mental health professional as soon as you can.
If you're reluctant to seek treatment, talk to a friend or loved one, any health care professional, a faith leader, or someone else you trust. If you think you may hurt yourself or attempt suicide, call or your local emergency number immediately. If you have a loved one who is in danger of suicide or has made a suicide attempt, make sure someone stays with that person.
Call or your local emergency number immediately. Or, if you think you can do so safely, take the person to the nearest hospital emergency room. It's not known exactly what causes depression. As with many mental disorders, a variety of factors may be involved, such as:.
Depression often begins in the teens, 20s or 30s, but it can happen at any age. More women than men are diagnosed with depression, but this may be due in part because women are more likely to seek treatment. Depression is a serious disorder that can take a terrible toll on you and your family.
Depression often gets worse if it isn't treated, resulting in emotional, behavioral and health problems that affect every area of your life. Depression major depressive disorder care at Mayo Clinic.Chu Chu Charlie (15) odds 10.
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Slalom (4) Scratched 2. Fontein Flyer (10) Scratched 14. Poolside Hamilton (4) 13. Moonlight Ruby (3) 9. She's Not Wanted (2) 2. Miss Procyon (6) 1.Johnson decided to launch his own cable television network. Gordon later hosted other programs and specials on BET, such as Black Men Speak Out: The Aftermath, related to the 1992 Los Angeles riots, and a recurring interview show, Conversations with Ed Gordon. In 1991, the network became the first black-controlled TV company to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange.
In 2005, Johnson retired from the network, turning over his titles of president and chief executive officer to former BET vice president Debra L.
By 2007, the network had launched two more music-oriented networks, BET Hip-Hop and BET Gospel. BET also launched a batch of original programming by this time, including reality shows Baldwin Hills and Hell Date, competition show Sunday Best, and town hall-style discussion show Hip Hop vs.
He was then replaced by Stephen Hill, who is also executive vice president of music programming and talent. In the wake of this news, Connie Orlando, SVP Specials, Music Programming, and News, served as the interim Head of Programming, according to chairman and CEO Debra Lee. Original programming currently seen on BET include Real Husbands of Hollywood, and Being Mary Jane.
In addition, the channel broadcasts acquired television series, primarily in the form of sitcoms (such as The Parkers, Family Matters and Moesha), drama series (such as Scandal), and same-day or week-delayed late-night runs of syndicated talk shows (namely The Wendy Williams Show, The Real, and Dish Nation).
Feature films released theatrically and on home video are also aired on the channel, comprising much of its primetime and weekend schedule.
Unipolar Depression: Everything to Know
The BET Walk of Fame Awards were established in 1995 by BET. In 2004, proceeds were shared between United Negro College Fund (UNCF) and the BET Foundation, which executes the Healthy BET obesity awareness campaign and other pro-social causes like the annual charitable black-tie BET Walk of Fame ceremony.
The awards are presented annually and broadcast live on BET. Global promotion is provided by Kroszover Entertainment. The BET Honors were established in 2008 by the network to honor the lives and achievements of African-American luminaries.
The awards are presented annually and broadcast on BET during Black History Month each February. BET UK first transmitted on Videotron (now known as Virgin Media) and several other cable providers from 1993 until 1996. BET International is the first international version of the channel and is available in Europe, Africa and the Middle East through satellite providers. BET launched on February 27, 2008 on Sky channel 191 and began to be carried by Freesat channel 140 on August 8, 2008.
BET International shows a mix of content from the main BET channel and locally produced shows. An exclusive, but temporary, HD version of the channel was made to show the 2009 BET Awards on Freesat EPG 142.
BET is additionally an associate member of the Caribbean Cable Cooperative. The Canadian feed mirrors the American feed, though certain television programs and films are blacked out. Until 2017, they were replaced with repeats of old music video blocks (namely BET Music, The Pull Up and BET Now). Since November 17, 2015. In 2007, a distribution deal was arranged with Paramount Home Entertainment. As a result, BET heavily censors suggestive content from the videos that it airs, often with entire verses and scenes removed from certain rap videos.
The BET website streamed the funeral live, while the channel periodically broadcast taped, 60-second reports from the funeral by senior news correspondent Andre Showell. Michael Lewellen, BET's senior vice president for corporate communications, defended the decision: "We weighed a number of different options. In the end, we chose to offer a different kind of experience for BET viewers. Coates and his organization Enough is Enough led protests every weekend outside the residences of BET executives against what they claim are negative stereotypes of black people perpetuated by BET music videos.
I suggest to my kids that they don't watch it," she said. We had public affairs programming. I had a show called Teen Summit, we had a large variety of programming, but the problem is that then the video revolution started up.